|Title||Efficiency of Item Selection in CD-CAT Based on Conjunctive Bayesian Network Modeling Hierarchical attributes|
|Publication Type||Conference Paper|
|Year of Publication||2017|
|Authors||Han, S-Y, Yoo, YJoo|
|Conference Name||IACAT 2017 Conference|
|Publisher||Niigata Seiryo University|
|Conference Location||Niigata, Japan|
|Keywords||CD-CAT, Conjuctive Bayesian Network Modeling, item selection|
Cognitive diagnosis models (CDM) aim to diagnosis examinee’s mastery status of multiple fine-grained skills. As new development for cognitive diagnosis methods emerges, much attention is given to cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT) as well. The topics such as item selection methods, item exposure control strategies, and online calibration methods, which have been wellstudied for traditional item response theory (IRT) based CAT, are also investigated in the context of CD-CAT (e.g., Xu, Chang, & Douglas, 2003; Wang, Chang, & Huebner, 2011; Chen et al., 2012).
In CDM framework, some researchers suggest to model structural relationship between cognitive skills, or namely, attributes. Especially, attributes can be hierarchical, such that some attributes must be acquired before the subsequent ones are mastered. For example, in mathematics, addition must be mastered before multiplication, which gives a hierarchy model for addition skill and multiplication skill. Recently, new CDMs considering attribute hierarchies have been suggested including the Attribute Hierarchy Method (AHM; Leighton, Gierl, & Hunka, 2004) and the Hierarchical Diagnostic Classification Models (HDCM; Templin & Bradshaw, 2014).
Bayesian Networks (BN), the probabilistic graphical models representing the relationship of a set of random variables using a directed acyclic graph with conditional probability distributions, also provide an efficient framework for modeling the relationship between attributes (Culbertson, 2016). Among various BNs, conjunctive Bayesian network (CBN; Beerenwinkel, Eriksson, & Sturmfels, 2007) is a special kind of BN, which assumes partial ordering between occurrences of events and conjunctive constraints between them.
In this study, we propose using CBN for modeling attribute hierarchies and discuss the advantage of CBN for CDM. We then explore the impact of the CBN modeling on the efficiency of item selection methods for CD-CAT when the attributes are truly hierarchical. To this end, two simulation studies, one for fixed-length CAT and another for variable-length CAT, are conducted. For each studies, two attribute hierarchy structures with 5 and 8 attributes are assumed. Among the various item selection methods developed for CD-CAT, six algorithms are considered: posterior-weighted Kullback-Leibler index (PWKL; Cheng, 2009), the modified PWKL index (MPWKL; Kaplan, de la Torre, Barrada, 2015), Shannon entropy (SHE; Tatsuoka, 2002), mutual information (MI; Wang, 2013), posterior-weighted CDM discrimination index (PWCDI; Zheng & Chang, 2016) and posterior-weighted attribute-level CDM discrimination index (PWACDI; Zheng & Chang, 2016). The impact of Q-matrix structure, item quality, and test termination rules on the efficiency of item selection algorithms is also investigated. Evaluation measures include the attribute classification accuracy (fixed-length experiment) and test length of CDCAT until stopping (variable-length experiment).
The results of the study indicate that the efficiency of item selection is improved by directly modeling the attribute hierarchies using CBN. The test length until achieving diagnosis probability threshold was reduced to 50-70% for CBN based CAT compared to the CD-CAT assuming independence of attributes. The magnitude of improvement is greater when the cognitive model of the test includes more attributes and when the test length is shorter. We conclude by discussing how Q-matrix structure, item quality, and test termination rules affect the efficiency.
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